Osteoarthritis (OA) has been defined as disease affecting the joints and bones and is regarded as a degenerative condition that is naturally occurring and irreversible. Age is the most prominent risk factor for the development and progression of OA. Half of all persons over 65 suffer from OA (Hugle et al). Inflammatory, mechanical, and metabolic processes are all involved in the progression of OA. Other structures that are affected by OA are cartilage, subchondral bone, menisci, muscles, fat, and synovial tissues.Therefore OA is referred to as a “whole joint disease”. (Hugle) Certain risk factors have been established based on occupation and life choices: physically demanding occupations (jobs that involve kneeling or squatting), certain sports, older age, female sex, OA in other joints, and previous history of knee surgery or injury (Dutton).
- Dutton M. Orthopaedic Examination, Evaluation, and Intervention. 2nd ed: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.; 2008.
- Hugle, T., Geurts, J., Nuesch, C., Muller-Gerbl, M., & Valderrabano, V. (2012). Aging and osteoarthritis: An inevitable encounter?. Journal of Aging Research, 10(11)